Deindividuation theory

In some Islamic countries, women wear the full-length dark-coloured chador, which, instead of allowing them to engage in antinormative behaviour, implies a strong system of norms of behaviour to which women adhere.

Results are broadly consistent with field studies of crowds and historical evidence. This is increased further if group identity is made salient.

Social identity model of deindividuation effects

He claimed all collective behavior was irrational. In some cases in which norms and standards promote aggressive behaviour e. Following Le Bon, Festinger and his colleagues proposed that being deindividuated in particular within a group reduces normal constraints on behaviour and encourages people to do things they normally would not do, because they are not directly accountable for their actions.

Participants who dressed in Ku Klux Klan robes shocked a research confederate more, but participants dressed as nurses actually shocked less regardless of whether they were identifiable or anonymous. An individual has many levels of self. After watching the video the participants were handed a questionnaire.

According to Reicher and his colleagues, that position limits understanding of deindividuation phenomena. Group size, as a larger group increases the above two factors.

For example, America is an individualist culture were people are generally less conforming and the results may be different in collectivist cultures such as Asian countries. In the undifferentiated individual, such a distinction is less marked.

Inhe argued that paying attention to one's personal values through self-awareness increases the ability of that person to self-regulate. Zimbardo sees people in crowds as being anonymous, with lessened awareness of individuality and a reduced sense of guilt, or fear of punishment.

At the greatest amount of voltage administered, the confederate stopped speaking at all. The 75 applicants who answered the ad were given diagnostic interviews and personality tests to eliminate candidates with psychological problems, medical disabilities, or a history of crime or drug abuse.

Individuation, reason, and order vs. Major findings of the study: The finding that deindividuation was associated with stronger group polarization and identification corresponds with the basis of deindividuation: However, Marsh et al found that mainly ritualised behaviour occurred at football matches, with actual violence being rare.

Crowds give you the opportunity to hide and also allow you to share the blame, reducing the sense of individual responsibility. Each prisoner had to be called only by his ID number and could only refer to himself and the other prisoners by number. Those results suggest that aggression and antisocial behaviour are not inevitable by-products of deindividuated situations.

Also, private self-awareness, or awareness of internal norms and standards, decreases because of the physiological arousal of being in a group and the high levels of group cohesiveness.

Some even began siding with the guards against prisoners who did not obey the rules. In the crowd, so it would seem, humans become disinhibited and behave anti-normatively. The British psychologists Steve Reicher, Russell Spears, and Tom Postmes argued that the notion of a loss of selfhood relies, inaccurately, on an individualistic conception of the self; rational action is equated with the individual self, and group membership is equated with the loss of identity and of rationality.

Defending Beware of crowd effects and especially other people who encourage you to join in and do things that you would not normally do. Experimenters also found that in-group participants actually expressed opposition to the roles imposed by the experimenters themselves.

The guards gave them back their uniforms and beds and allowed them to wash their hair and brush their teeth. Would you have terminated it earlier.

It also means that we can set out to provide a better explanation for collective behavior, namely, one that tries to understand how the actions of the crowd are socially regulated rather than why they are chaotic.

Men in the military are even required to shave their heads in order to better unify their appearance.


Diener proposed that the strict focus on anonymity as the primary factor of deindividuation had created an empirical obstacle, calling for a redirection of empirical research on the topic.

The guards may have been so sadistic because they did not feel what happened was down to them personally — it was a group norm. Origins of deindividuation theory Theories of crowd behaviour provided the origins of modern deindividuation theory.

Rather, according to SIDE, anonymity affects the ability for a group to express its identity, and thus to engage in targeted and ingroup normative behaviour, thereby changing power relations between groups.

These boards review whether the potential benefits of the research are justifiable in the light of the possible risk of physical or psychological harm. Anonymous individuals, for example, are less aware of how they present themselves, and, as a result, their behaviour will tend to be antinormative, or against accepted norms and standards.

In analyzing his results, Lee came to several conclusions: It is argued that the anonymity of CMC frees people from normal constraints on behaviour, allowing people to behave impulsively and often antisocially.

Deindividuation theory is a simple translation of Le Bon's concept of submergence. The term was first coined by Festinger, Pepitone and Newcomb (), to explain why the ideas put forward by Le Bon happen to people in crowds. The social identity model of deindividuation effects (or SIDE model) is a theory developed in social psychology and communication studies.

SIDE explains the. deindividuation theory and SIDE with regard to how anonymity is measured within social contexts. Deindividuation Theory Festinger, Pepitone, and Newcomb () used the term deindividuation to describe the effect of a crowd or group on the behavior of an.

Deindividuation. Have you ever been in a group and acted in a manner that was completely out of character for you? How about when you hear on the news that some group of people did something so violent or stupid that you just couldn't believe it?

Deindividuation theories.

Deindividuation theory seeks to provide an explanation for a variety of antinormative collective behavior, such as violent crowds, lynch mobs, etc.

Deindividuation theory has also been applied to genocide and been posited as an explanation for antinormative behavior online and in computer-mediated communications. Deindividuation as person moves into a group results in a loss of individual identity and a gaining of the social identity of the group.

When two groups argue (and crowd problems are often between groups), it is like two people arguing.

Deindividuation theory
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Deindividuation definition | Psychology Glossary |